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APA Style, 7th Edition

The APA Style 7th Edition guide serves to provide APA support starting January 2020

Films (DVD / Blu-Ray / Streaming)

If you are citing a direct quotation from a film, you can use the time stamp in place of a page number within the in-text citation.


Director, A. A. (Director). (Year). Title of video [Film]. Production Company.


Bier, S. (Director). (2018). Bird box [Film]. Netflix; Chris Morgan Productions; Dylan Clark Productions.

(Bier, 2018, 16:30)

Guggenheim, D. (Director). (2006). An inconvenient truth [Film]. Lawrence Bender Productions; Participant Productions.

(Guggenheim, 2006, 23:13)

Haggis, P. (Director). (2004). Crash [Film; director's cut on DVD]. Bob Yari Productions; DEJ Productions; Blackfriars Bridge; Harris Company; ApolloProScreen Productions; Bull's Eye Entertainment.

(Haggis, 2004)

Note: If the edition of the film you used is important, such as a special extended edition, include that in the brackets.

Online Videos (e.g. YouTube, TED)

Use this for videos posted on websites or blogs, such as YouTube, TED, a news website, etc. If you are citing a direct quotation from a video, you can use the time stamp in place of a page number within the in-text citation (see Example 1).


Author, A. A. [username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example 1: Full Name

Jones, P. [patrickJMT]. (2009, October 24). Easily memorize the unit circle [Video]. YouTube.

(Jones, 2009, 1:15)

Example 2: User Name Only

Vercamath. (2011, July 25). Parallel universes explained [Video]. YouTube.

(Vercamath, 2011)

Example 3: TED Talk

Gavagan, E. (2012, April). A story about knots and surgeons [Video]. TED Conferences.

(Gavagan, 2012)

TED. (2016, August 30). Suzanne Simard: How trees talk to each other [Video]. YouTube.

(TED, 2016)

Note: If citing from the TED website, list the speaker as the author. If citing from YouTube, list TED (or the account) as the author and include the speaker's name in the title.

Films on Demand

The library database Films on Demand may contain different types of videos, including full films and television episodes. You will usually not be able to identify a director for a video; begin with the title in that case. Identify as many of the components as you are able.

Film Template

Director, A. A. (Director). (Year). Title of video [Film]. Production Company.
Title of video [Film]. (Year). Production Company.

Film Example

My brain and I [Film]. (2012). ORF.

(My Brain, 2012)

Episode Template

Title of episode (Season X, Episode X) [TV series episode]. (Year). In Title of series. Production Company.

Episode Example

The Vikings, from Paris to Normandy (Season 3) [TV series episode]. (2019). In Butterfly effect. Balanga.

Television Episodes


Writer, A. A. (Writer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (Season X, Episode X) [TV series episode]. In C. C. Executive Producer (Executive Producer), Title of TV Show. Production Company.


Moffat, S. (Writer) & Macdonald, H. (Director). (2007, June 9). Blink (Season 3, Episode 10) [TV series episode]. In R. T. Davies (Executive Producer), Doctor who. BBC Studios.

(Moffat & Macdonald, 2007)


It is preferable to locate a speech in a retrievable source (e.g. in a book, website, video, etc.), and then cite that source.

Example 1: In a Book

Safire, W. (Ed.). (1997). Lend me your ears: Great speeches in history. W.W. Norton.

(Safire, 1997)

Example 2: Transcript on the Internet

The Avalon Project. (n.d.). I have a dream by Martin Luther King, Jr; August 28, 1963. Yale Law School.

(The Avalon Project, n.d.)

Example 3: YouTube Video

EDM is LIFE. (2017, January 6). I have a dream speech full video - Martin Luther King, Jr [Video]. YouTube.

(EDM is LIFE, 2017)

Example 4: From Vital Speeches of the Day

Manschreck, C. L. (1971). My conscience is bound by the word of God. Vital Speeches of the Day, 37(17), 540–545.

(Manschreck, 1971)

Example 5: Audio Recording

King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric.

(King, 1963)


Only cite an interview if it is retrievable. If it is a personal interview that is not able to be accessed by the reader, follow the guidelines for personal communication.


Interviewee, A. A. (Year, month day interviewed). Title of interview [Interview]. Website. http://xxxxx


Miller, C. (2019, October 7). Chanel Miller - Turning her pain into a rallying cry with Know My Name - Extended interview [Interview]. Comedy Central.

(Miller, 2019)

Music Recordings


Artist, A. A. (Year). Title of song [Song]. On Title of album. Label. (Original work published Year).

Artist, A. A. (Year). Title of album [Album]. Label. (Original work published Year).


Destiny's Child. (1999). Say my name [Song]. On The writing's on the wall. Columbia.

(Destiny's Child, 1999, 0:43)

Joel, B. (1978). 52nd street. Columbia.

(Joel, 1978)



Host, A. A. (Host). (Year, Month Day). Episode title (No. XX) [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of podcast. Production Company. http://xxxxx


Mars, R. (Host). (2019, September 30). The help-yourself city (No. 375) [Audio podcast episode]. In 99% invisible. Radiotopia.

(Schmidt, 2017)